Astrology and Astronomy have been an integral part of Hindu culture since ancient times. The contributions of these hindu scientists span a wide range of fields, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, and space research.

From the concept of zero to the study of subatomic particles, these 12 scientists have made significant contributions that have had a profound impact on their respective fields.

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## 1. Aryabhata

Aryabhata, an Indian scholar who lived during the 5th century AD, was a notable figure in the fields of mathematics and astronomy. His numerous contributions to mathematics included advancements in algebra, arithmetic, and trigonometry. However, his most significant contribution to the world was his introduction of the concept of zero.

This concept was later adopted by both Arab and European mathematicians and played a fundamental role in the development of modern mathematics. Aryabhata’s work, including his seminal book Aryabhatiya, is still widely studied and respected today as one of the most influential works in the field of mathematics.

Besides that, his book named **Ganitapada** mentions about approximate value of pie (π) and area of triangle. The verse from Ganipada 6 states *tribhujasya phalaśarīraṃ samadalakoṭī bhujārdhasaṃvargaḥ* that translates to: “for a triangle, the result of a perpendicular with the half-side is the area.

Ganitapada 10 states, *caturadhikaṃ śatamaṣṭaguṇaṃ dvāṣaṣṭistathā sahasrāṇā* *ayutadvayaviṣkambhasyāsanno vṛttapariṇāhaḥ, *that means* *Add four to 100, multiply by eight, and then add 62,000. By this rule the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20,000 can be approached.

## 2. Varahamihira

In the 6th century AD, India was home to one of the most brilliant minds in astronomy and mathematics. Varahamihira was an Indian scholar who made significant contributions to the fields of astronomy and astrology. He was able to accurately predict both solar and lunar eclipses, a feat that was truly remarkable given the limited technology of the time.

He is widely regarded as the pioneer who introduced and comprehended the zodiac signs, predictive calculations for auspicious ceremonies, and astrological computations in India, making him a strong candidate for this honor.

He also wrote several books on astrology, including the famous **Brihat Samhita and Pancha Siddhantika**, which are still widely read and respected today. Through his work, Varahamihira left an indelible mark on the fields of astronomy and astrology, and his legacy continues to inspire scholars and astronomers around the world.

## 3. Brahmagupta

Brahmagupta, a renowned Indian mathematician and astronomer, lived in the 7th century AD and is celebrated for his remarkable contributions to mathematics. His works include significant developments in algebra, geometry, and arithmetic. Brahmagupta’s most notable achievement was the development of the rules for solving quadratic equations, which made solving such equations much simpler and more efficient.

Aside from his works in mathematics, Brahmagupta also contributed to astronomy. He wrote a book called Brahmasphutasiddhanta, which covered topics such as planetary motions, eclipses, and timekeeping. He in 628 described gravity as the term ‘**Guruktwaakarsan**’ and was the one to disagree to the fact that moon was farther from sun (which was popular belief at that time).

## 4. Bhaskara II

Bhaskara II was a brilliant Indian mathematician and astronomer who lived in the 12th century AD. He left an indelible mark on the field of mathematics with his groundbreaking works on algebra, trigonometry, and arithmetic. However, his most significant contribution to mathematics was the development of the concept of differential calculus, which is a fundamental branch of modern calculus.

Bhaskara II’s work in astronomy was equally impressive, with his books **Siddhanta Shiromani and Karanakutuhala** still revered as some of the most important works in the field. In these works, he explored a wide range of astronomical topics, including the movements of planets, eclipses, and celestial objects.

Despite living centuries ago, Bhaskara II’s works continue to inspire and educate modern-day mathematicians and astronomers. His contributions have had a profound impact on the field of mathematics, and his name remains synonymous with brilliance and innovation.

## 5. Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan, a renowned Indian mathematician of the 20th century, left an indelible mark on the field of mathematics. He made significant contributions to the study of number theory, including the Ramanujan prime and the Ramanujan theta function. However, his most remarkable work was in the area of infinite series, where he proposed groundbreaking theories that shook the foundations of mathematics.

Ramanujan’s collaboration with the **British mathematician G.H. Hardy** resulted in significant progress in the theory of numbers, and their partnership remains one of the most celebrated in mathematical history. Ramanujan often regarded his mathematical problem solving capability was connected to god himself as he always said *‘An equation for me has no meaning unless it expresses a thought of God’.*

## 6. Jagadish Chandra Bose

Jagadish Chandra Bose, a remarkable Indian scientist, made significant contributions to multiple fields of science during the 19th and 20th centuries. Bose is best known for his research on radio waves and the development of the microwave receiver, which paved the way for the development of modern communication technology. Bose was always a great **Karna (from Mahabharata)** admirer. He was impressed by his fair fights, trumpets over failures, and noblest spiritual teachings.

In addition to his work in physics, Bose also made significant contributions to the field of plant biology, studying the physiology of plants and inventing the crescograph, a device that measures plant growth and responses to external stimuli. Bose’s achievements and contributions to science have left a lasting impact on our understanding of the natural world.

## 7. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

C.V. Raman, a 20th-century Indian physicist, is renowned for his discovery of the Raman effect, which describes how light is scattered by molecules. Raman’s research in this field laid the foundation for the development of Raman spectroscopy, a powerful tool used to analyze the chemical composition of materials. For his groundbreaking work in the area of light scattering, Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930, cementing his legacy as one of India’s most influential scientists.

He was influenced by philosophies of **Advaita Vedanta**. He also weared a sacred turbin (pugri) and even attributed his turbin for recognition he got in England. On a public speech he said ‘*There is no Heaven, no Swarga, no Hell, no rebirth, no reincarnation and no immortality. The only thing that is true is that a man is born, he lives and he dies. Therefore, he should live his life properly.’*

## 8. Satyendra Nath Bose

Considered one of India’s greatest scientists, Satyendra Nath Bose was a physicist whose work in quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics had a profound impact on the field of physics. Bose’s work led to the discovery of the **Bose-Einstein condensate**, a unique state of matter that exists at extremely low temperatures. His contributions to science have been recognized with numerous awards and honors, including the prestigious Padma Vibhushan and the Meghnad Saha Medal.

## 9. Homi Jehangir Bhabha

Homi Jehangir Bhabha was a visionary physicist and scientist who dedicated his life to advancing the frontiers of knowledge in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic rays. His pioneering work in these areas has inspired generations of scientists and researchers in India and around the world. Through his leadership of the **Indian Atomic Energy Commission** and his founding of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bhabha left an indelible mark on India’s scientific landscape.

## 10. Meghnad Saha

In the world of physics, Meghnad Saha was a prominent Indian physicist who made significant contributions to the study of thermal ionization and the ionization of gases. He formulated the **Saha ionization equation**, which provided a theoretical explanation of the ionization of gases in the atmosphere of stars. His work was widely acclaimed, and he was honored with the Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan for his exceptional contributions to the field.

## 11. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was an Indian-American physicist who made important contributions to our understanding of stars. One of his most significant discoveries was the **Chandrasekhar limit**, which is the maximum mass that a white dwarf star can have before it collapses into a neutron star or a black hole.

This discovery has helped us better understand the structure and evolution of stars. For his work, Chandrasekhar was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983, and his contributions continue to be significant in the field of astrophysics today.

## 12. Vikram Sarabhai

Vikram Sarabhai, a prominent Indian physicist of the 20th century, is best known for his pioneering work in the field of space research. He played a key role in India’s space program and was instrumental in launching **India’s first satellite, Aryabhata**.

His efforts led to the establishment of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), which has since become one of the leading space agencies in the world. Sarabhai received numerous accolades for his contributions to science, including the Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan awards.

## Summarizing Hindu Scientists and their contributions

Scientist | Field of Study | Major Contributions |
---|---|---|

Aryabhata | Mathematics | Introduced the concept of zero to the world |

Varahamihira | Astronomy and Astrology | Predicted solar and lunar eclipses |

Brahmagupta | Mathematics and Astronomy | Developed the rules for solving quadratic equations |

Bhaskara II | Mathematics and Astronomy | Developed the concept of differential calculus |

Srinivasa Ramanujan | Mathematics | Made significant contributions to number theory and infinite series |

Jagadish Chandra Bose | Physics | Developed Bose-Einstein statistics and condensate |

C.V. Raman | Physics | Discovered the Raman effect, which led to Raman spectroscopy |

Homi Jehangir Bhabha | Physics and Nuclear Science | Made significant contributions to cosmic rays and nuclear physics |

Meghnad Saha | Physics | Developed the Saha ionization equation for gases in stellar atmospheres |

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar | Physics and Astrophysics | Developed the Chandrasekhar limit for white dwarf stars |

Vikram Sarabhai | Physics and Space Research | Established India’s space program and contributed to the development of the first satellite |

The 12 Hindu scientists discussed in this article are just a small sample of the incredible minds that have emerged from India throughout history. Their contributions continue to inspire and shape the world we live in today. It is important to recognize and celebrate their achievements and to encourage future generations to pursue their own paths of discovery and innovation.