Ramayana is one of the greatest Hindu epics and one of the world’s oldest poems. It is an ancient Sanskrit epic that follows Lord Rama’s quest to rescue his beloved wife, Sita, from Ravana with the help of an army of monkeys.

Like all the great Hindu epics, Ramayana too has molded all the Hindus’ lifestyles and cultures. Among thousands, one such custom which has been an auspicious part of our festivals is the Vivah Panchami which honors the marriage of Lord Rama and Goddess Sita.

‘Vivah’ means marriage, and ‘Panchami’ means fifth-day Vivah Panchami is celebrated on the fifth day of the Shukla Paksha during the month of ‘Margashirsha.’

Ramayana says Sage Vishwamitra approached the emperor of Ayodhya, King Dasharath, asking for protection of the Yajna from the rakshasa. With great reluctance, Dasharath sent his children Rama and Lakshmana along with Vishwamitra as per the advice of his Guru Vasishta.

Vishwamitra’s Yajna was completed under the protection offered by Rama and Lakshmana, due to which the sage was highly pleased. Ensuing, the sage took the prince of Ayodhya to Mithila. At the same time, King Janaka, the ruler of Mithila, was conducting a contest to choose the right match for his daughter Sita.

As mentioned in Ramayana, On the Panchami of ‘Margashira,’ Lord Rama visited the Kingdom of Janaka, Mithila. King Janak organized a ‘Swayamvar’ ceremony in his kingdom, where he invited powerful kings and princes of various kingdoms. His daughter Sita was supposed to choose a groom for herself among them.

Ram breaks Shiva Dhanush

However, the condition for marrying Sita was to lift the Dhanush of Lord Shiva named Pinaka and string it to prove their prowess. In doing so, everybody failed even to lift it as the bow was huge and heavy. Then, upon instructions from Viswamitra, Rama strung the bow successfully and broke it into two pieces during the process. Everyone was stunned with awe, and King Janak was highly pleased and overwhelmed. As a result, King Janaka married his daughter Janaki (Sita) to Lord Rama.

During the grand marriage ceremony, the brothers of Rama, namely Bharata, Lakshmana, and Shatrughan, were also married to Mandavi, Urmila, and Shuddhakirti, respectively.

Vivah Panchami is considered a very auspicious day as it marks the ceremonial marriage anniversary of Rama and Sita. Hence, the celebrations begin several days in advance in many places in Nepal and India.

Rama Sita marriage

The celebrations of Vivah Panchami are specifically notable in Lord Rama temples, particularly in the Mithilanchal region, Nepal, Ayodhya, and other areas of North India. The day holds immense significance at Janakpur in Nepal, as it is believed that the first ceremony was held there. Along with Janakpur, the festival is celebrated with great enthusiasm and zeal in Ayodhya, the birthplace of Lord Ram.

The entire event is also known as ‘Ram Vivah Utsav’ when the temples are lit brightly with lamps, and the celebrations involve the enactment of the wedding ceremony. A grand procession leaves from one temple to another and ends with the wedding ceremony in the evening. The idols of Lord Ram and Goddess Sita are adorned with beautiful clothes and jewelry to make them look like bridegroom and bride. Devotees sing devotional songs in praise of Lord Ram and Devi Sita throughout the day.

Several stage shows, dramas, and cultural programs are also organized on Vivah Panchami. Ramleela, a stage performance that depicts the life of Lord Ram and Devi Sita, is also observed. On this day, devotees take a holy bath in the lakes of Mithilanchal (‘Dhanushsagar,’ ‘Gangasagar,’ and ‘Argaza Pond’) as a part of the rituals.

Ram and Janaki Chariots in Janakpur
Devotees take out a procession with the chariots of Ram and Janaki in Janakpurdham of the Dhanusha district of Nepal on the occasion of the Vivaha Panchami festival, Sunday, December 4, 2016. Photo: Brij Kumar Yadav (source)

In Janakpurdham, Nepal, thousands of pilgrims arrive, many from India and other parts of Nepal. Special rituals and pujas are held in temples, where the celebrations are observed with great fanfare. The celebrations continue for seven days, and devotees observe all the rituals with immense zeal and dedication. Thousands of devotees visit the temples to seek the divine blessings of a happy family and married life. This festival is one the best occasion to visit Janakpur to observe the culture and traditional values of the place.

Vivah Panchami is also considered highly auspicious, significant, and sacred for marriage on this day. Therefore, many couples choose to marry on this day. It is said that even witnessing such rituals can fill the married life of individuals with happiness and harmony.

Last Updated on November 28, 2022

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